The history of the cocktail
Almost certainly can be argued that the word “cocktail” appeared in America. It occurs in the balance sheet of warehouses at Columbia, dated May 13, 1806: “Cocktail is a stimulating drink that made up of different kinds of alcoholic ingredients with added sugar, water and bitters, which is also called” bitter sling “.”
The book “The Book of cocktails – home allowance for gentlemen” tells about a young girl named Daisy and her “Cock’s Tail” According to legend, during the war of independence in America lived squire Allen, owner of the tavern “Grape branch” and a great lover of cockfights.. Once he discovered the loss of his best fighters and felt sad. Soon, the city entered a young lieutenant, who was holding under his arm precious fugitive. Squire was overjoyed return of his favorite and ordered Daisy cook for a young man the best refreshing drink. And then the young Daisy mix some bitters and house wine with a generous portion of Kentucky whiskey, add a few large chunks of ice, and all raised their glasses for “Cock’s Tail”, as Jupiter (the name of the rooster) has not lost a single pen. Gallant officer offered to call the drink “cocktail”, and then treated them to his fellow officers. Thus about cocktail learned the whole American army. Another story tells of an officer from the environment of George Washington, who once proposed a toast to the general’s cap, adorned with feathers, and said: “I drink to the cock’s tail ».
The concept of «cock-tailed» existed also among breeders, since the 60s of the 18th century. At that time the horses of mixed blood clipped short tails, that why they became like cock feathers. These horses were called «cock-tailed». That is how this phrase attributed to the Oxford dictionary, although there is shown a second meaning: “man of low origin, but behaves like a gentleman.”
There is a French version (glass in the form of an egg, from which comes the word cocktail), and others. The first book devoted to cocktails – “How to Mix Drinks; or, The Bon Vivant’s Companion” wrote the legendary bartender Jerry Thomas, nicknamed professor, and published it in 1860. In 1882 appeared “Illustrated Bartenders Manual” by Harry Johnson. On these pages you can see the glass beaker filled with ice and fitted with metal inverted cone – the predecessor of the modern shaker.
Many famous cocktails were invented in the late 19th century – it is “Mint Julep”, “Daiquiri”, “Gin Fizz” and, of course, the famous “Martini”. However, most cocktails appeared in the roaring twenties of the 20th century. The result of “Prohibition” January 17, 1920 became a black day for all Americans who like to miss a glass or two. According to the accepted ” Prohibition ” in the country introduced a ban on the sale, manufacture and importation of alcohol. That law has closed bar’s doors, but they were locked up not for everyone. It was necessary to knock conditional clatter or call cherished password. Radically changed the behavior of Americans drinkers. Before World War I, that is, until 1914, America was not accepted to offer guests a pre-dinner aperitif. Now, when alcohol was banned, couples began to drink before dinner and after theater. Henceforth bars attended not only by men: with them came the wife and mistresses. These were the years of the universal desire to pleasure. F. Scott Fitzgerald called this time “Jazz Age”. He brought the final liberation of women from domestic bonds and their complete emancipation. It was formed a new type of woman – sexually explicit and an important role in this transformation played alcohol. Even cocktails sounded playful and sensual, “Caress his chest”, “Well done,” “Blonde from Paris”, “One magical night,” “Temptation”. Cocktails were named in honor of the street (“Saint-Germain”), cars (“Rolls-Royce”) and even movie stars. In 20-30 years of the last century cocktail found his dazzling brilliance, becoming a symbol of chic and carefree life, and these years have made history as the era of America endless receptions, parties and celebrations. Like mushrooms after the rain began to appear nightclubs, where on the private parties poured contraband gin, which was to mask called “martini.” By 1929, could be counted at least 120 recipes of this cocktail. Rich Americans rushed to Europe, where they could enjoy peace, openly, carried with them their favorite recipes for cocktails. As a result of the ” Prohibition ” Paris and London experienced a “fever named cocktail.” Bartenders learned to make cocktails for all occasions, and these traditions are preserved even after the abolition of the ” Prohibition “. With the abolition of the ” Prohibition ” were change American bars. From the dark stuffy eateries bars turned into spacious halls where you can listen to a live orchestra and dancing. Bars have become a favorite place for business and personal meetings. Changed the nature of cocktails: “small” cocktails missed out on first place long drinks. The Second World War inflicted fatal blow to a luxurious, sparkling giants bars. In those grim years survived only other places – smaller and simpler.
The fifties of the 20th century were a time of revival of the American nation after the war and strengthen family relationships. But with the onset of the turbulent ’60s everything changed like by magic. Reappeared a huge number of young, free, eager to love women and the shortest bridge to the relationship began ccoctail. 1960s – this is the era of rebellion of young people against the foundations and traditions, the time hippies, drugs and rock ‘n’ roll. Ended this revolution with the emergence of disco in the 70s. After you have spent several hours among the flashing lights and loud music , after you jumped and shouted, your body requires fluid and up for it you need to quickly and directly. Cocktails, which are suitable for this purpose, have become less strong. Completely forgotten and unclaimed become beauty, the aesthetic appearance, so prized by connoisseurs. However, continued to exist bars, where to went the remaining connoisseurs of cocktails, those leisurely people that like to sit quietly on a high chair near the bar, with a smile, look into the eyes of the bartender and ask him to cook for them something real, such as “Side Car”.
In the 1980s, large companies – manufacturers of alcohol, made an attempt to revive interest in classic cocktails, seeking to attract a new, younger generation of consumers. Cocktails that are offered now different from those that rattled around the world in the glorious 1920s. They have become less complex and sophisticated in composition, but more vivid and attractive. Now they add more juice, and they are not as intoxicating as quench their thirst. And yet classic remains a classic.